Today, the chance of success in women with in vitro fertilization treatment methods is between 50-60% until the age of 35. We can say that couples should not despair immediately, and they should stay away from stress, which creates serious health problems and negatively affects the treatment. The important thing is to know that you need time to be successful. The treatment methods generally used in couples who decide to be treated are as follows.
- Ovulation induction (Enhancement of ovulation),
- Inoculation, insemination (placing the sperm directly in the uterus),
- Treatment according to the causes of infertility,
- Reproductive treatment techniques,
What are the points to be considered in the treatment process?
Before starting the treatment, the expectant mother should inform the doctor about all the diseases and medications.
Smoking and alcohol use should be stopped before IVF treatment.
Being at an ideal weight has a positive effect on treatment success.
Causes of Female Infertility
- Ovulation disorders (Polycystic ovary syndrome, Chocolate cysts)
- Blocked tubes
- Anti-sperm antibodies
- Pathologies found in the uterus
- Thyroid hormone disorders (goiter, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism)
- Past infections related to genital organs
- Previous surgeries related to uterus and ovaries
- High level of prolactin hormone
- Decreased ovarian reserve due to advanced age
- Cervical related causes, cervical factor
- Closed cervix
- Improper sexual activity
- Adhesion in the uterus
- Luteal phase defect
- chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment
- Early menopause
Ovulation disorders are the most common cause of infertility in women.
For pregnancy to occur, the woman’s egg must first be ejected from the ovaries, in other words, ovulation should occur. Under normal conditions, the female ovulates once a month. However, Infrequent, irregular, or absent ovulation is defined as an ovulation disorder. The most important sign for a woman to suspect an ovulation disorder is irregular menstrual bleeding. Ovulation disorders can also be seen in women who have regular menstruation every month.
For ovulation to occur in women, the female hormones secreted from the pituitary gland in the brain must be secreted at regular intervals and in sufficient quantities. If this hormone is not secreted at all from birth, a woman will not be able to menstruate throughout her life. If hormones are secreted irregularly, menstrual bleeding and ovulation will be irregular. However, although the milk hormone called prolactin is secreted more than normal, ovulation disorders are experienced until the prolactin level is reduced to a normal level with surgical methods and drug treatments.
In addition, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, which is the formation of multiple cysts in the ovaries due to any disorder, also causes ovulation disorders. Irregular menstruation, excessive hair growth, and hair loss, and excessive acne are also symptoms of ovulation disorder caused by Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS).
Deformed or blocked fallopian tubes also lead to infertility.
For pregnancy to occur, first of all, the sperm and egg must come together to produce fertilization. If the woman’s tubes are somewhat blocked or completely closed, it becomes very difficult or impossible to achieve pregnancy naturally. Childhood tuberculosis, sexually transmitted infections, intra-abdominal adhesions caused by surgical operations, and the manifestation of intrauterine tissue in another area of the body can damage the tubes. In such cases, which negatively affect the functionality of the tubes, it is not possible for a woman to conceive naturally.
Endometriosis is a cause of female infertility.
Endometriosis is the formation of tissue, that covers the inside of the uterus and allows the embryo to attach when pregnancy occurs and is shed with menstrual bleeding even if there is no pregnancy, at another location rather than the uterus. When abnormal intrauterine tissue forms on the surface of the uterus, its ligaments, tubes, and ovaries, this tissue bleed every month during the menstrual period and Since this blood cannot be expelled from the body, it causes adhesion and inflammation in the surrounding areas. Also, when Endometriosis occurs in the ovaries, chocolate cysts called Endometrioma occur. Women should suspect endometriosis if they feel severe pain during and after sexual intercourse, before and during menstrual bleeding, if their menstrual bleeding is irregular and they cannot conceive naturally. 80% of people with endometriosis suffer from infertility.
Cervical problems can lead to female infertility.
Congenital or acquired structural defects in the cervix, polyps or fibroids formed in this area and surgical operations applied in their treatment are the causes of infertility in women. However, the secretion disorders and abnormal features that occur in the cervix due to the effect of hormones make it difficult to transfer sperm from the genital route. In addition, infections that occur in the cervix for any reason can lead to infertility in women.
Low egg reserve makes it difficult to conceive naturally.
Every woman is born with a certain number of egg capacities. However, advanced age, drugs, and surgical operations may reduce the egg reserve of the woman. As the egg reserve decreases, the probability of conceiving naturally decreases.
Uterine or ovarian surgeries can cause infertility in women.
While benign formations such as uterine fibroids or polyps are surgically removed, adhesions may occur in this area and these adhesions may prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. In addition, removal of an ovary due to problems in the ovaries also makes the hormone levels in this place irregular and the possibility of obtaining a pregnancy through natural ways may decrease. If both ovaries are removed due to any disease, pregnancy becomes impossible.
Advanced age makes it difficult or even impossible for a woman to conceive.
The most important factor for women to get pregnant is that their reproductive functions are working at full capacity. In this context, the age of the woman is an important factor. While the probability of a healthy 20-year-old woman to conceive naturally within a year is about 85%, the probability of a healthy woman over the age of 35 to become pregnant in the same period is about 50% on average. Because as the age progresses, the reproductive functions, capacity, and adequacy of the woman decrease rapidly.
inflammation or congenital adhesions, tumors that develop into the uterus called fibroids, congenital heart-shaped uteruses, double uterus, deformities in the uterus, infections and poor mucus quality, polyps developing in the cervix or inside the uterus, irregular life, smoking, alcohol use, weight, stress are among factors that can cause infertility.
Is the Treatment of Female Infertility Possible?
The rate of pregnancy in women with surgical and interventional methods differs with the age factor. Most of the factors mentioned above can be easily eliminated by choosing the right-center and the right physician.