What is laparoscopy?
The laparoscopy method, which is used to diagnose and treat different health problems in the abdomen, is a kind of semi-surgical method. The process of observing the inner region of the abdomen with an optical device is called laparoscopy. A small incision is made on the navel and a device is inserted into the abdomen, thus providing illumination in the area. Then, diseases and problems can be monitored directly by examining the ovary, tube, and parts of the uterus. In fact, the treatment can be applied with the help of auxiliary devices which were placed inside the lower abdomen.
Although it is not a complete surgical procedure, the laparoscopy method, which is applied as a semi-surgical operation and is known as bloodless bladeless surgery among people, provides the opportunity for diagnosis and treatment of internal organs. In general, the term endoscopy is used similarly to methods such as hysteroscopy for the method of looking inside with a camera and applying treatment.
Application of Laparoscopy Procedure
When this procedure is applied, multiple small-sized incisions are made. Tube-shaped instruments are inserted through these incisions, each of which is approximately 1 centimeter in diameter. These instruments are called trocars.
Different instruments and camera devices called laparoscopes are passed through these pipe mechanisms, which are used in a fixed manner during the procedure. In order to make observations in the abdomen, the abdomen is inflated by means of carbon dioxide gas in the first stage. Images from the abdominal cavity are viewed on a high-definition video monitor. During the operation, the surgeon takes clear images through the monitor and, if necessary, performs the surgical procedures by continuing with this system.
The laparoscopy process, which initially started with diagnostic purposes and tubal ligation applications in the field of gynaecology, is now widely used for both diagnosis and treatment. Main areas of use in gynaecological perspective include:
- Diagnosis and treatment in infertility management
- Endometriosis-chocolate cysts surgery
- Chronic pelvic pain management
- Intervention in gynecological emergencies that may cause acute abdomen
- Management of adnexal masses – masses related to the ovary and tubes
- Interventions for oncological procedures-cancer surgery
- Urogynecological interventions
In some cases, it is necessary to make a special incision large enough for manual manipulation. In this case, the operation is carried out manually. However, even when such a procedure is performed, the incision formed in the body is much smaller than in a normal surgery.
Laparoscopy in infertile patient approach
The laparoscopy technique, which has been developed over the years since the 1960s when video-assisted closed surgical techniques began to develop, has become one of the most used techniques today and is widely used in ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease, sterilization, or oncological procedures, apart from reproductive surgery.
Today, when the concept of minimally invasive surgery is adopted, the laparoscopic surgery method, which has many advantages compared to open surgical methods, is used both in the field of gynecology and in other surgical branches for both diagnosis and treatment.
Today, laparoscopy can be used mainly in the following areas in the approach to the infertile patient:
- For diagnostic purposes
- To increase fertility
The following diseases can be diagnosed, and necessary treatment can be applied by using laparoscopy, which is a closed surgical technique:
- Ovarian cysts
- Chocolate cysts
- Tube diseases and obstructions
- Abdominal cavity adhesions called pelvic adhesions
- Endometriosis foci
- Tumors-myomas concerning the uterus
The advantage of closed surgeries over open surgical interventions includes short hospital stay, quick recovery, less blood loss, less pain, more aesthetic results, and most importantly less adhesion.